Annex B - Research Data

Responses we have gotten, ranging from Secondary 2 students to adults:











Singapore Drinking Water Quality 2013


Source : PUB’s Water Quality Office
Characteristics
Unit
WHO 2011 GV (4th Edition)
Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations 2008. (updated 1 Nov 2010)
Average
Range
Compliance
Microbiological Parameter
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
cfu/100ml
<1
<1
<1
<1
P
Physical Parameters
Colour
Hazen
-
15
<5
<5
P
Conductivity
uS/cm
-
-
193
84-426
-
Odour
TON
-
-
Unobjectionable
Unobjectionable
-
pH Value
Units
-
6.5-9.5
8.1
7.5-8.3
P
Total Dissolved Solid
mg/L
-
-
133
68-270
-
Turbidity
NTU
5
5
0.19
<0.1 - 0.50
P
Radiological Parameters
Gross Alpha
Bq/L
0.5 Note (1)
0.5
0.031
<0.017-0.198
P
Gross Beta
Bq/L
Note (1)
1
0.095
<0.021-0.414
P
Radon 222
Bq/L
-
100
<0.6
<0.6 -0.94
P
Chemical Parameters
Acrylamide
ug/L
0.5
0.5
<0.5
<0.5
P
Alachlor
ug/L
20
20
<1
<1
P
Aldicarb
ug/L
10
10
<2.5
<2.5
P
Aldrin and Dieldrin
ug/L
0.03
0.03
<0.01
<0.01
P
Antimony
ug/L
20
20
<1
<1-2
P
Arsenic
ug/L
10
10
<5
<5
P
Atrazine and its chloro-s-triazine metabolites
ug/L
100
Note (2)
<1
<1
P
Aluminium
mg/L
-
0.1, 0.2 Note (3)
0.03
<0.019 - 0.17
P
Barium
mg/L
0.7
0.7
0.02
<0.004-0.035
P
Benzene
ug/L
10
10
<5
<5
P
Benzo[a]pyrene
ug/L
0.7
0.7
<0.2
<0.2
P
Boron
mg/L
2.4
2.4
0.013
<0.004-0.029
P
Bromate
mg/L
0.01
0.01
<0.005
<0.005
P
Bromodichloromethane
ug/L
60
60
11.23
<5 - 28.80
P
Bromoform
ug/L
100
100
<5
<5
P
Cadmium
ug/L
3
3
<0.5
<0.5
P
Carbofuran
ug/L
7
7
<2.5
<2.5
P
Carbon Tetrachloride
ug/L
4
4
<1
<1
P
Chlorate
mg/L
0.7
0.7
<0.043
<0.043 - 0.24
P
Chlordane (total isomers)
ug/L
0.2
0.2
<0.02
<0.02
P
Chlorine Note (4)
mg/L
5
5
2.26
1.2 - 3.0
P
Chlorite
mg/L
0.7
0.7
<0.015
<0.015
P
Chloroform
ug/L
300
300
23
<5 - 61
P
Chlorotoluron
ug/L
30
30
<2.5
<2.5
P
Chlorpyrifos
ug/L
30
30
<0.1
<0.1
P
Chromium
mg/L
0.05
0.05
0.0003
0.0001 - 0.0017
P
Copper
mg/L
2
2
<0.002
<0.002
P
Cyanazine
ug/L
0.6
0.6
<0.6
<0.6
P
Cyanide
mg/L
-
0.07
<0.03
<0.03
P
Cyanogen chloride (as cyanide)
ug/L
-
70
<50
<50
P
Chloride
mg/L
-
-
19
6- 45
-
2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in free acid form
ug/L
30
30
<2.5
<2.5
P
2,4-DB [4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid]
ug/L
90
90
<2.5
<2.5
P
DDT and metabolites
ug/L
1
1
<0.01
<0.01
P
Di(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate
ug/L
8
8
<1
<1
P
1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane (DBCP)
ug/L
1
1
<0.2
<0.2
P
Dibromoacetonitrile
ug/L
70
70
<10
<10
P
Dibromochloromethane
 ug/L
100
100
<5
<5 - 22
P
Dibromoethane (Ethylene Dibromide) 1,2-
ug/L
0.4
0.4
<0.2
<0.2
P
Dichloroacetate
ug/L
50
50
17
<5 - 49
P
Dichloroacetonitrile
ug/L
20
20
<1
<1 - 1.6
P
Dichlorobenzene, 1,2-
ug/L
1000
1000
<1
<1
P
Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-
ug/L
300
300
<1
<1
P
Dichloroethane, 1,2-
ug/L
30
30
<2
<2
P
Dichloroethene, 1,2-
ug/L
50
50
<5
<5
P
Dichloromethane
ug/L
20
20
<5
<5
P
Dichloropropane, 1,2-
ug/L
40
40
<5
<5
P
Dichloropropene, 1,3-
ug/L
20
20
<10
<10
P
Dichlorprop
ug/L
100
100
<2.5
<2.5
P
Dimethoate
ug/L
6
6
<0.1
<0.1
P
Dioxane, 1,4
ug/L
50
50
<1
<1
P
Endrin
ug/L
0.6
0.6
<0.01
<0.01
P
Epichlorohydrin
ug/L
0.4
0.4
<0.4
<0.4
P
Ethylbenzene
ug/L
300
300
<1
<1
P
Edetic acid (EDTA-Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid) in free acid form
ug/L
600
600
<1
<1
P
Fenoprop (2,4,5-TP; 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy propionic acid)
ug/L
9
9
<2.5
<2.5
P
Fluoride
mg/L
1.5
0.7
0.47
0.40-0.70
P
Hexachlorobutadiene
ug/L
0.6
0.6
<0.01
<0.01
P
Isoproturon
ug/L
9
9
<2.5
<2.5
P
Iron
mg/L
-
-
0.005
<0.003 - 0.019
-
Lead
ug/L
10
10
<2
<2
P
Lindane
ug/L
2
2
<0.01
<0.01
P
MCPA (4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid)
ug/L
2
2
<2
<2
P
Mecoprop (MCPP; [2(2-methyl-chlorophenoxy) propionicacid])
ug/L
10
10
<2.5
<2.5
P
Mercury, in inorganic form
ug/L
6
6
<0.03
<0.03-0.03
P
Methoxychlor
ug/L
20
20
<0.01
<0.01
P
Metolachlor
ug/L
10
10
<1
<1
P
Microcystin-LR
ug/L
1
1
<0.1
<0.1
P
Molinate
ug/L
6
6
<1
<1
P
Monochloramine Note (5)
mg/L
3
3
1.9
1.5 - 2.8
P
Monochloroacetic acid (chloroacetic acid)
ug/L
20
20
<10
<10
P
Manganese
mg/L
-
0.4
0.004
<0.002 - 0.015
P
Molybdenum
mg/L
-
0.07
<0.004
<0.004 - 0.004
P
Nickel
mg/L
0.07
0.07
<0.003
<0.003
P
Nitrate (as N)
mg/L
11
11
0.35
0.02 - 0.86
P
Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)
ug/L
200
200
<1
<1
P
Nitrite (as N)
mg/L
0.9
0.9
0.0104
<0.01 - 0.04
P
Nitrate plus nitrite combined
units
1
1
0.35
0.02 - 0.86
P
Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)
ng/L
100
-
<2 Note (6)
<2 - 7.7 Note (6)
P
Pendimethalin
ug/L
20
20
<1
<1
P
Pentachlorophenol
ug/L
9
9
<1
<1
P
Permethrin, where used as a larvicide for public health purposes
ug/L
-
300
<2
<2
P
Pyriproxyfen
ug/L
-
300
<10
<10
P
Selenium
ug/L
40
10
<10
<10
P
Simazine
ug/L
2
2
<1
<1
P
Styrene
ug/L
20
20
<5
<5
P
Sulphate
mg/L
-
-
38
11 - 130
-
Silica (as SiO2)
mg/L
-
-
3.6
0.46 - 7.68
-
Terbuthylazine (TBA)
ug/L
7
7
<1
<1
P
Tetrachloroethene
ug/L
40
40
<5
<5
P
Toluene
ug/L
700
700
<5
<5
P
Trichloroethene
ug/L
20
20
<5
<5
P
Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-
ug/L
200
200
<1
<1
P
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid)
ug/L
9
9
<2.5
<2.5
P
Trichloroacetate
ug/L
200
200
10.7
<5 - 33.3
P
Trifluralin
 ug/L
20
20
<1
<1
P
Total Trihalomethanes Ratio
units
<1
<1
0.32
<0.2 - 0.79
P
Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
mg/L
-
-
1.3
0.2 - 2.6
-
Total Alkalinity (as CaCO3)
mg/L
-
-
17
<5 - 44
-
Total Hardness (as CaCO3)
mg/L
-
-
59
25 - 145
-
Total Phosphorous (as P)         
mg/L
-
-
0.005
<0.003 – 0.018
-
Uranium
ug/L
30
15
0.01
0.001 - 0.044
P
Vinyl Chloride
ug/L
0.3
0.3
<0.3
<0.3
P
Xylenes
ug/L
500
500
<15
<15

* The quality of our drinking water is regulated by the Environmental Public Health (EPH) (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulation 2008 (updated 1 Nov 2010).
The drinking water standards set out under the EPH Regulations were based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.


(1) :


These are WHO screening values and not guideline values.
(2): Regulated value is for Atrazine only, excluding its chloro-s-triazine metabolites.
(3) :Code of Practice on Piped Drinking Water Sampling and Safety Plans
Al controlled at 0.1mg/L or less in large water treatment facilities that serve 10,000 or more people. (Applicable to all Singapore and Johore WW except PTWW)
Al controlled at 0.2mg/L or less for in small facilities that serve less than 10,000 people. (Applicable only to PTWW)
 (4) :Chlorine data included all waterworks.
 (5) :
Monochloramine data included all waterworks except Pulau Tekong Waterworks. No monochloramine was used in Pulau Tekong Waterworks as a secondary disinfectant.
 (6) :
Only one reading at 7.7 ng/L. Most data showed non-detect, with a very small number close to the detection limit (<2 ng/L). The average reading was <2 ng/L.
- See more at: http://www.pub.gov.sg/general/watersupply/Pages/DrinkingWQReport.aspx#sthash.4VnkInOl.dpuf

Sources we used:
Chong Yong Liang:

Johanna Lim Ziyun: 





Kok Li Ying:



Ng Wei Jie:








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